Learning to read is a complex process, one that does not come easily to all children. Some children will struggle to read and become reluctant readers.
Hi lo books can help generate interest in reading and improve these children’s reading abilities. Hi lo books are engaging and easier to read, and they show kids that reading does not have to be a chore.
Somewhere in the Middle
For reluctant readers, reading books that pique their interests, but are too complex for their reading abilities, can be a discouraging undertaking that makes them dislike reading. On the other hand, handing them books with subject matter that isn’t age appropriate, like Clifford the Big Red Dog, will just embarrass them.
Providing hi low books is an important part of improving reading skills and fostering a love of reading in reluctant readers. Hi low books offer highly interesting, age-appropriate stories that grab the readers’ interests, but at lower readability levels that are accessible. For example, some books may be targeted to readers in high school but have a reading level of third or fourth grade.
High interest consists of content that children of that age would want to read on their own and learn more about without intervention from teachers and parents. Some of the topics that tend to keep children captivated include animals, mysteries, adventure, and sports. Low reading level means the children will be able to grasp the story and keep reading the book on their own with little difficulty.
What Makes a Book Hi Lo?
Hi lo books share similar characteristics. First, these books offer realistic characters, convincing text, and age-appropriate subject matter that is interesting and enticing.
The vocabulary used is controlled. The text is non-complex. The sentences are simpler and shorter. The chapters, too, are shorter, and they tend to focus on short episodes in the plot. The plots are usually linear, without difficult structure or flashbacks. Often, the story is told in the first person. Furthermore, you’ll see a lot more dialogue and very little descriptive text to keep engagement high.
Hi lo books are also shorter in length. This increases children's confidence when picking up the book. And if they can read it in its entirety and like what they’ve read, they won’t be discouraged from picking up another.
Design also comes into play. You’ll typically see more white space, a larger font, a cream-coloured paper, and more leading between lines. These design elements are strategically included in order to help reluctant readers focus.
Uses of Hi Lo Books
Hi lo books are most often used in schools, where interventions for reluctant readers are most likely to occur. There is a wide variety of curriculum-related titles as well as teacher’s guides and workbooks to support the titles for their use in schools. In addition, it isn’t uncommon to find these books in school libraries and in book clubs, buddy reading situations, and tutor situations.
And though the school market is the largest for these types of books, they’re also available at bookstores in order to foster a love of reading at home as well. In addition, more and more adults with literacy issues, or those learning English as a second language, are beginning to seek out hi lo books, making them highly valuable in a wide variety of contexts.
Hi lo books can make a significant difference in reading proficiency levels. They can also improve confidence and offer hope for a literate life. And though they’re not a silver bullet, they are an effective resource that should be considered for reluctant readers.
Many children’s book authors want to be more inclusive when writing fiction books for kids. In particular, they want to include LGBTQ characters in their stories for many reasons. Some want to challenge themselves to get out of their comfort zones when writing. Others want to write books that an underrepresented group can identify with in order to help more kids relate to the books they read, see themselves reflected in the media, and feel less alone. Some writers want to add these characters in their stories because it’s simply realistic for them to be there. And most writers know that the world needs more LGBTQ representation in the media and more variety when it comes to the current selection of LGBTQ fiction books for kids.
However, they’re also afraid of misrepresenting the community. So instead, they don’t try.
If you want to include LGBTQ characters in your fiction books for kids, don’t be discouraged. Here are some tips for avoiding LGBTQ stereotypes in your stories.
Know What Stereotypes to Avoid
In order to effectively avoid writing LGBTQ stereotypes that hinder equality, you need to know what to avoid in the first place. Here are the major stereotypes to steer clear of.
The effeminate gay man: Though flamboyant gay men certainly exist, not all gay men are effeminate, so it would be a poor choice to portray all gay men like this. In some media representations, the effeminate gay man is also seen as something to laugh at, dismissed at a joke. And sometimes, being labelled as such can lead to abuse and assault. If you’re describing your character as such, ensure that you’re not doing so just so he can be a young woman’s best friend or a diva for entertainment purposes.
The manly lesbian: Similarly, another LGBTQ stereotype to avoid is the manly lesbian. Mainstream society tends to only recognize lesbians as butch women who are unnatural or threatening. For these women, walking in society as a butch lesbian is difficult as they often get verbally abused for their lack of femininity, and many have to battle for their right to wear what they want to in a world of “girls should wear pink.” If you are going to use this type of character in fiction books for kids, remember that being butch is simply a different way of being a woman, that there’s nothing wrong with it, and that it doesn’t necessarily mean that she wants to be a man.
The promiscuous or confused bisexual: There are many myths about bisexuality. Bisexual men and women are both often seen as promiscuous simply because their dating pools are doubled. Bisexuality shouldn’t automatically be associated with infidelity or having many partners, though. Keep this in mind when writing bisexual characters in your stories. In addition, stay clear of writing bisexual characters who are “just confused” about their sexuality.
In addition to avoiding stereotypes, it’s important to avoid writing clichés if you want your stories to resonate with the LGBTQ community. Some storytelling motifs in fiction books for kids have recurred too many times, including the unattainable best friend, the homophobic friend, the gay football player, or the lesbian cheerleader.
Writing the same motifs again will bore or frustrate the readers that you’re trying to connect with, and it may even make you seem like a lazy author (which, of course, you’re not).
Do Your Research
When stepping outside of your comfort zone in your writing, it’s always important to dedicate enough time to researching your subject. The same is true for writing LGBTQ characters in a way that avoids stereotypes. If you know anyone in the community, talk to them. If not, go online and ask your questions in a respectful way.
When performing your research, keep an open mind and be honest with yourself about the beliefs you hold about gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer people. Be open to the possibility that what you believe may be outdated and wrong.
No doubt, learning about injustice and oppression is important. Teaching kids about social justice matters. We should be sharing these stories with children. However, when all we focus on is injustice, we fail to create characters that all children can identify with, and we fail to help other children learn about the similarities that are present among other races, cultures, communities, and marginalized groups.
Not all LGBTQ books should be coming-out stories or bullying stories. Not all stories with black characters should focus on slavery. Diversity in children’s books is growing; however, many of these stories still focus too heavily on oppression and injustice, on “the problem.”
White characters in children’s books deal with a wide variety of issues that have absolutely nothing to do with their race. They grapple with heavy personal issues and they go on fun, exciting adventures, too. So why do we continue to focus on oppression in diverse books? Black characters, Latino characters, characters with disabilities, gay characters and all other characters should be created in such a way that they are more than just their races, their disabilities, or their sexual orientations.
The Risks of Focusing Solely on Oppression
Focusing solely on oppression and injustice or on the struggles of having a disability, for example, doesn’t allow children to see others around them as people similar to themselves. It reduces the complexity of their lives to a teaching lesson, to a life of suffering, or to a source of pity.
Oppressive narratives are often restrictive and inadequate, and sometimes, even stereotypical. And they’re often void of creativity and imagination. Non-fiction children’s books about black historical figures, for example, can help teach black children about their history; but children also want to find aspects of their ethnic heritage and their culture outside of their history books. They want to see characters like themselves having adventures in space, fighting zombies, and having typical days at school. Ethnic-themed lists appeal to parents, but children want more. They want diverse characters they can identify with in fun, exciting stories. Focusing solely on oppression often sacrifices the cultivation of wonderment that embodies high-quality children’s books and prevents children from being able to identify with characters and better understand themselves and those around them.
Books featuring diverse characters in myriad situations doesn’t just benefit the marginalized groups reading the stories, either. It also benefits all children, allowing them to understand those around them much more than books on ethnic traditions or historical figures could ever allow.
A Healthy Mix of Diversity in Children’s Books
There needs to be a healthy mix of diversity in children’s books. Some books should celebrate the differences between groups, and others should speak out about injustice. But we also need diverse children’s books that teach inclusion.
There needs to be more books with diverse characters without focusing on problems, struggles, and injustices. Culture and race, disabilities, and sexual orientation can be organically weaved through stories in a way that isn’t so forced. These aspects of the characters’ lives can be part of the story, without being the story. Authors of children’s books should be depicting characters of colour, characters with disabilities, and other marginalized groups doing many things, in all sorts of places. And just as importantly, teachers and librarians must commit to reading and promoting these types of books to children.
Books can—and should—act as both mirrors and windows for kids. In some books, children may find characters who look, sound, and feel emotions just like they do, mirroring their own thoughts and actions and helping them connect to the stories and putting them on a path of self-discovery.
In others, the stories act more like windows, allowing them to learn about new life experiences or cultures and helping them build understanding and empathy for the lives of those around them. Diverse books can also be windows as mirrors. By reading about diverse characters who, on the outside, seem nothing like them, children can see that others are actually very similar to them in many ways. They can find parts of themselves in these characters.
Many people are underrepresented in children’s books, though strides are being taken. Diverse books can help kids relate, not only to the characters, but to those around them.
Relating to Characters Who Are Like You
When reading, we all want to be able to relate to the characters in the book. Unfortunately, there are many people who have trouble finding books that allow them to do so due to a significant lack of diversity, from characters with disabilities to characters of different sexual orientations, religions, and races.
There’s no doubt that we need diverse books. All children should be able to identify with the stories, the characters, and the communities that are represented in the books that they read. All children deserve to find books that help them build images of who they are and who they could be.
Diverse books aim to place marginalized and underrepresented persons and communities in stories, so more kids can find themselves in the books they read.
Relating to Those Who Aren’t Like You
Diverse books don’t just help more children relate to characters who are like them, however. They also help kids relate to people of other races, cultures, and communities. They help kids learn what it’s like to walk in someone else’s shoes, such as what it’s like to have a different culture or a physical or mental disabilities. Diverse books allow children to expand their horizons, which is something everyone can benefit from.
By exploring diverse characters in children’s books, kids can better understand others in the world around them. They can better understand that people who are different from them are still full and complex human beings, and they can better realize that these seemingly different people are actually quite similar to them in many ways.
Helping to Start Discussions
Diverse children’s books are important tools for starting conversations with children about differences and disabilities, both inside of the classroom and out. They provide a starting point for teachers and parents to teach children about global awareness and inclusion. They can also provide positive messages and images about those who are different, help develop understanding and awareness, and help promote positive attitudes, acceptance, and respect for those differences.
We Need Diverse Books is more than just an organization; it’s a movement. People of colour and people who have been historically underrepresented in books are taking a stand. And thankfully, some publishers have listened. They understand the many reasons to create—and to read—multicultural books for children.
Here are just a few of those reasons.
1. Society Is Diverse
We live in a global society. People emigrate from all over the world to live in Canada. Cultures, races, and religions are all mixed together. We are all living as one. Only creating white characters in books simply isn’t representative of the diversity that exists in society today, especially in Canada where diversity plays an important role. Multicultural books for children with characters of different ethnicities present a realistic picture of society.
2. Understanding Those Around Us
Diverse books also enhance our understanding of different cultures, ethnicities, and experiences. This can help us relate to those we interact with. Because we live in a multicultural society, reading diverse books to children can help them develop empathy and acceptance towards their peers and nurture meaningful relationships in classrooms, on playgrounds, and beyond.
3. Taking Us Back to Our Roots
Ethnic-centric children’s books are valuable. They can help open up conversations with children about their roots—their ancestors, their heritages, and their family traditions. It can help children better understand why they dress a certain way or eat certain foods when others in their classes do not, for example.
4. Linguistic Diversity
Diverse books also allow for linguistic diversity. Multicultural books for children that are set in a cultural backdrop, like Missing Nimâmâ, often have words scattered in the text or have a glossary in the back in the affiliated language. Bilingual books are not only fun for children, but they also offer a great way to introduce children to new languages.
5. Global Awareness
Although we’re certainly advocates of Canadian literature, we also understand the importance of reading books from around the world. Multicultural books for children that are set in other areas of the world offer informative historical and geographical details. They also improve global awareness for kids. Plus, these types of books can also take children to faraway places that they may never be able to visit, expanding their horizons while they read in the comfort of their own homes.
6. Abolishing Stereotypes
Stereotypes, skewed images, and clichés of different cultures abound in the media. High-quality multicultural books for children can abolish stereotypes and dispel common myths and misconceptions, helping children learn facts and see real portrayals of marginalized groups.
7. Identifying with Characters
All kids deserve to read stories with characters, cultures, and communities that they can relate to. It’s only natural that we would want to relate to the characters in a book. But mainstream books make it very difficult for marginalized groups to be able to do so. Diverse books can help more children, from varying backgrounds, find stories that they can relate to and characters that they can identify with. This can foster a love of reading and put children on a path of self-discovery.
Children’s reading diets should be well balanced. Multicultural children’s books can open up the world, help kids identify and relate, and help them become more prepared for anything that life brings them.